Population problems with NS-Creation
In order for the NS-Creation theory to explain how a neutron star pulsar can be found in a binary system, such as Cen X-3 (where there is a slow neutron star pulsar in a close binary orbit around a super-giant star), the following conditions are required to create such a system:
- One of the stars of a normal binary star system (consisting of two giant stars (GS’s)) must experience a supernova explosion, and, in the process create a rapidly rotating neutron star pulsar (FP), which is standard NS-Creation theory.
- The freshly created rapidly rotating pulsar (FP (10 or more rotations per second (rotation period less than 1/10th of a second))) must remain bound to the binary system in the aftermath of the SNE that just created it.
- The rapidly rotating pulsar must slow down to be a slowly rotating pulsar (SP(-)) with rotation period greater than 10 seconds (i.e. it takes 10 sec or more for a single rotation).
- Starting with a rotation period in the range of 10 sec -> 10,000 sec, the slowly rotating pulsar must begin to spin up (SP(+)) as a binary x-ray pulsar with a rotation period that is 5 sec or less and getting smaller (i.e the pulsar is spinning up meaning it is rotating faster with time in the binary orbit).
While this scenario has been considered plausible (in order to enable NS-creation theory to explain the binary x-ray pulsars), it runs into a population problem, namely that:
- There are virtually zero radio pulsars observed in binary systems with spin period << 1 second (FP(-)), which would need to exist and continue to spin down (to longer spin periods > 1 sec (SP(-))) in order to be progenitors of the x-ray binaries.
- There are many isolated radio pulsars observed with spin period << 1 second, so, if binary radio pulsars existed with spin period << 1 sec, they should be observable, but virtually none have been observed.
- There are many x-ray pulsars observed with spin period > 1 second in binary systems, that are spinning up.
The implication is that there is a serious gap of radio pulsars with spin period << 1 second that are slowing down in binary systems, as isolated radio pulsars are observed to do.
One point to emphasize here is that we are assuming that if NS-Creation applies, then when the GS explodes to SNE(FP(-)), that the same type of FP(-) pulsar would be created whether the exploding GS was an isolated star or the exploding GS was part of a GS+GS binary system.
This lack of binary radio pulsars is further evidence that the NS-Capture theory is the only plausible explanation for the existence of X-ray binary pulsars with spin periods << 1 second, because that is the only alternative that explains how a slow neutron star could be found in a binary system (i.e. it must have been a quiet NS(0) (not rotating as a pulsar) and come from somewhere else previously unassociated with the capturing GS and been captured by the GS.
Therefore, it is asserted that the absence of observed binary radio pulsars with spin period << 1 second with a GS companion is compelling evidence that they don’t exist, because if they did exist they should be observed.
(Note that radio pulsars with spin period > 1 sec are too faint to be observed as is obvious from the P/P-dot diagram.)
Since radio pulsars in GS binary systems simply don’t exist, there is no way to explain the actual existence of observed binary x-ray pulsars with spin period > 1 second using the NS-Creation theory.
This means that the only way to explain the existence of binary x-ray pulsars that have a spin period > 1 second, is that they must have originated by a previously existing neutron star having been captured in a collision forming a new binary system consisting of a normal star plus a neutron star.
What happens after the neutron star is bound is that recurring collisions between the neutron star and the normal star, cause the neutron star to begin spin with its magnetic field polar axes being the levers by which the neutron star is pulled into becoming a pulsar.
In other words,
- not only does the NS-Creation theory have a problem explaining the x-ray binaries by not having an environment (rapidly rotating pulsar with binary giant star companion) that would enable a freshly created rapidly rotating neutron star pulsar to slow down (because the only observed such binary systems have an x-ray pulsar that is speeding up),
- but no such systems are observed to exist, which would be needed to explain the preliminary conditions for the existence of x-ray binaries.
- i.e. the lack of observed binary radio pulsars with spin period > 1 sec is consistent with the argument that such systems cannot be created because of the spin contradiction.
The spin contradiction is represented by the simple statement:
- Pulsars in binary systems do not slow down.
This one fact is sufficient to prove the NS-Capture theory by showing that the NS-Creation theory cannot be correct.