P/P-dot Evidence for NS-Capture
The P/P-dot diagram contains critical supportive evidence for the NS-Capture theory, in particular in the [SNE] => [FP + SNR] => [SP] phases of pulsar evolution.
In particular, we are now focusing on the post-supernova event time period that starts with the SuperNova Event, itself, [SNE]; then continues through the phase where the Fast Pulsar begins to spin down and dissipates and drives away the SuperNova Remnants [FP(-)+SNR]; and then finally continues through the phase where the isolated Slow Pulsar [SP(-)] slows down until its pulses are no longer observable.
As can be seen in the P/P-dot diagram above, the [SNE]=>[SNR+FP] phase is in the upper center of the diagram represented by the star icons. The stars contain SNR associations with FP’s, which establishes that FP’s are associated with the aftermath of an SNE.
Also, in the diagram, all the pulsars (gray dots) to the lower right of the star icons are slower pulsars, which have no supernova remnants associated with them because they have dissipated and been blown away by radiation from the pulsar as the pulsar has slowed down.
The slow pulsars continue to evolve to the lower right until their pulses are so slow that they are no longer visible, and thus the neutron star pulsar effectively disappears from visibility using current observation techniques.
From the point of view of the NS-Capture theory, the most remarkable aspect of this diagram is that no pulsars, fast or slow, are observed to be in a binary system with a giant star. i.e. there are no spinning-down binary pulsars of the form [FP(-) + GS] or [SP(-) + GS] on the P/P-dot diagram.
However, in the proposed negative P-dot section of the diagram there are both [FP(+) + GS] and [SP(+) + GS] spinning-up binary pulsars observed, such as Her X-1, Cen X-3, and the BeXB’s.
In order to explain the existence of Cen X-3 and BeXB’s ([GS + SP(+)] systems) using the NS-Creation theory, it would be necessary for there to be pre-cursor [GS + SP(-)] systems. However there are none.
Therefore, the only explanation for the [GS + SP(+)] systems is the NS-Capture theory. i.e. if the NS in the [GS + SP(+)] system cannot have been created by a pre-cursor binary system where one of the members created a NS through NS-Creation, then the NS must have come from somewhere else outside the vicinity of the GS that has become a [GS + SP(+)] system. i.e. the NS-Capture mechanism of a passing NS having a binding collision with the GS.
i.e. the fact that the [GS + GS] systems are not observed to become [GS + FP(-)] or [GS + SP(-)] systems which should show up on the P/P-dot diagram if they existed, means that [GS + SP(+)] systems must have been created by previously unassociated [GS,NS] encounters.
(Note: while there are several binaries to the lower left of the pulsar island, it is expected that these will turn out to be of the Millisecond Pulsar (MSP) variety, with low mass companions, and not the required GS companions.)
There are 2 components to the empirical conclusion:
- There are observed spinning-up pulsars (FP(+), SP(+)) as companions to giant stars. Therefore we know that a neutron star, NS, and a companion GS will cause the NS to spin-up into a slow and then fast pulsar.
As such, we may logically assert that neither a FP or a SP can slow down when it has a GS binary companion.
- Given the observation and assertion in (1), we would not expect to find any pulsars spinning down that have a GS companion. And there are none found on the P/P-dot diagram.
From (1) and (2) we may conclude that NS-Creation cannot explain the binary pulsars at all. While NS-Capture fits with all the data.