Definitive Empirical Proof of NS-Capture
In order to provide a definitive empirical proof of the NS-Capture theory, we need to provide physical evidence that shows that the NS-Capture process is clearly in existence, while corresponding lack of physical evidence shows NS-Creation lacks any evidence of its possible applicability to analysis of large classes of pulsars.
In order to demonstrate this proof, we will focus on two complementary aspects of the NS-Capture vs the NS-Creation process. In particular, we will look at evidence for spin-up in binary systems of the NS-Capture theory, and lack of evidence for spin-down in the NS-Creation theory.
In the NS-Capture theory we have the following spin-up subprocess from item (3) in the logical proof of NS-Capture:
[ GS + NS(0) ] => [ GS + SP(+) ] => [ GS + FP(+) ] |<----------------------------------->| (1>e>0.1, SP(+)) => (0.1>e>0, FP(+))
In the above process segment, there are dozens of examples of NS spin-up in the literature. In particular, the Be X-ray binaries. These x-ray sources show NS’s in elliptical orbits that are spinning-up (SP(+) -> FP(+)) and circularizing ((1>e>0.1) -> (0.1>e>~0), as predicted by NS-Capture. Therefore, we have empirical evidence of the three intermediate states of NS-Capture: freshly bound binary, binary with SP(+), and binary with FP(+).
By comparison, the NS-Creation theory requires a complementary spin-down process for the NS in the presence of a giant star (GS), as described in (4) of the logical proof:
[ GS + FP(-) + SNR ] => [ GS + SP(-) ] => [ GS + NS(0) ] |<-------------------------------------->| (no evidence found)
As shown above there is no evidence found of the existence spinning-down pulsars in orbits around giant stars (GS).
Since the spin-down rates and spin-up rates for the two processes are similar, which predicts a visible lifetime of about 5 million years for both the spin-up and spin-down processes, we would expect to see a large population of radio pulsars spinning down in binary systems with a GS companion.
i.e. If NS-Creation is true, then In order to maintain a population of x-ray binary pulsars that are spinning up, there must be a progenitor set of binaries that initially existed as a GS+GS pair, where one of the GS’s blew up in an SNE creating an FP(-) => SP(-) => NS(0) that spun down, in order to be reborn again, when the companion GS starts to evolve such that its radius reaches the point of closest approach in the elliptical orbit of the NS(0).
Since no evidence of the existence of such systems exists, we conclude that such systems do not exist, and that therefore NS-Creation cannot explain the existence of the X-ray pulsars in X-ray binary systems.
Therefore, we are left with only NS-Capture to explain the results.